This contains information about triathlon

Core exercises

A strong core is essential to optimal performance and the reduction of injury.

Attached is a beginners program to strengthen the core.

Core training program

Upper body Stretches

Sports Injury Scotland






Stretching should form an integral part of any training regime. Research suggests the best time to stretch is after exercise, making sure the muscles are warm. stretching a cold muscle can lead to potential muscle damage.

Attached is some stretches focusing on the main muscles of the upper body.

Upper Body Stretching Program

Stretching programs for the lower body and core can also be found on the website.

Initial Management of an Acute Injury

Once an injury occurs, whether to muscle, bone or ligament, it is imperative that you seek the most appropriate treatment for this. Injury often varies in severity, and therefore symptoms will differ. The most common signs of inflammation are heat, redness, swelling, pain and loss of function, not all of these symptoms may be present and some may even appear at a later date.

When you suspect you have sustained an injury to soft tissue (Muscle or Ligament) you must first minimize the symptoms of inflammation. The first 24 hours following the initial injury are critical in management. The following acronym is designed to control the bleeding and thus reduce inflammation and scar formation.

R: Relative Rest

I: Ice

C: Compression

E: Elevation

Relative Rest

Following any musculoskeletal injury, depending upon the severity, may require some immobilization, generally research suggests that a short period of reduction in motion can result in a stronger scar, which will be able to withstand more force, thus improving tissue regeneration and promotion of parallel alignment (Brukner and Khan 2012).

It is important however not to rest the injured area for too long, extended periods of immobilisation can weaken not only the injured tissue but also the surrounding areas, making return to activity a slow process.


One of the most important components of inflammation recovery, is the application of ice, Ice has been thought to reduce tissue metabolism, thus reducing blood flow and accumulating fluid, which results in reduction of swelling. Application of ice should happen as soon after injury as possible and should continue for the first 48 hours.

Two application procedures have been suggested, continuous and intermittent.

Continuous: 20 mins every 2 hours

Intermittent: 10 mins, with 10 mins rest then another 10 mins ice every 2 hours.

There are a number of ways to apply ice, with the most common being reusable packs (which can be kept in the freezer and used when required), Chemical ice packs (these are one use, disposable packs which are good for travelling, can be an expensive long term option tho), and frozen veg (frozen peas** have been found to be a good alternative to ice, as they conform to the body easily and can be re frozen for further uses).

** Mark bag with do not eat.

Prolonged exposure to ice can cause burning or nerve damage.


To reduce bleeding and swelling compression should be applied to the injury site, this should be used during and after ice application. The pressure should be firm but not to tight that it causes pain.

When using a bandage pressure should be initially applied distal to the injury and with slight overlap move proximal to one handbreadth above the injured area.


The injured limb should be, where appropriate be raised above the heart, to reduce the pressure within the injured structure. This will also help in reducing the accumulation of fluid into the area, which will therefore reduce swelling.

Precautions in the Acute Stages

During the initial 72 hours there are a number of things that the injured person should avoid

Heat: Which will increase blood flow to the injured site, therefore increasing swelling,

NO hot baths, showers, saunas etc

Alcohol: this can mask the level of pain and severity of the injury

Aggravating Activity: Can result in worsening of the injury or re-injury

Massage and aggressive manual therapy: can increase blood flow, thus increasing swelling and risking further injury.

Online Coaching

A relatively new service to Sports Injury Scotland, the online coaching service is a personalised programme to enable individuals to achieve the most from their training and competitions, while minimising the planning and management of the program detail. the Sports Injury Scotland coaching programme is an individualised service, taking into consideration the individuals life/work commitments as well as correctly periodising an often tricky race schedule. All components of training will be covered, ensuring the risk of overtraining, weaknesses and imbalances are minimised. For more information regarding our coaching service please click here.